Papers Under Review:
Papers in Preparation:
- Stephens, N. M., Dittmann, A. D., & Townsend, S. S. M. (In press). Social class and models of competence: How gateway institutions disadvantage working-class Americans and how to intervene. In C. Dweck, A. Elliot, & D. Yeager (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (2nd Edition): Theory and application. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
- Jury, M., Smeding, A. Stephens, N. M., Nelson, J., Aelenei, C., & Darnon, C. (2017). The experience of Low-SES students in higher education: Psychological barriers to success and interventions to reduce social-class inequality. Journal of Social Issues, 73(1), 16-34. doi: 10.1111/josi.12202
- Apfelbaum, E. P., Stephens, N. M., & Reagans, R. (2016). Beyond one-size-fits-all: Tailoring diversity approaches to the representation of social groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111(4), 547-566. doi: 10.1037/pspi0000071
- Stephens, N. M., Brannon, T. N., Markus, H. R., & Nelson, J. E. (2015). Feeling at home in college: Fortifying school-relevant selves to reduce social class disparities in higher education. Social Issues and Policy Review, 9(1), 1-24. doi: 10.1111/sipr.12008
- Stephens, N. M., & Townsend, S. S. M. (2015). How can financial incentives improve the success of disadvantaged college students? Insights from the social sciences. In B. Castleman, S. Schwartz & S. Baum (Eds.), Decision making for student success: Behavioral insights to improve college access and persistence. New York, NY: Routledge.
- Stephens, N. M., & Townsend, S. S. M. (2015). The norms that drive behavior: Implications for Cultural Mismatch Theory. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology (commentary), 46, 1304-1306. doi: 10.1177/0022022115600264
- Stephens, N. M., Townsend, S. S. M., Hamedani, M. G., Destin, M., & Manzo, V. (2015). A difference-education intervention equips first-generation college students to thrive in the face of stressful college situations. Psychological Science, 26(10), 1556-1566. doi: 10.1177/0956797615593501
- Stephens, N. M., Cameron, J. S., & Townsend, S. S. M. (2014). Lower social class does not (always) mean greater interdependence: Women in poverty have fewer social resources than working-class women. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(7), 1060-1072. doi: 10.1177/0022022114534768
- Stephens, N.M., Hamedani, M. H., & Destin, M. (2014). Closing the social-class achievement gap: A difference-education intervention improves first-generation students' academic performance and all students' college transition. Psychological Science, 25(4), 943-953. doi: 10.1177/0956797613518349
- Stephens, N. M., Markus, H. R., & Phillips, T. (2014). Social class culture cycles: How three gateway contexts shape selves and fuel inequality. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 611-634. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115143
- Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., Markus, H. R., & Hamedani, M. G. (2013). Who explains Hurricane Katrina and the Chilean earthquake as an act of God? The experience of extreme hardship predicts religious meaning-making. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 44(4), 607-619. doi: 10.1177/0022022112454330
- Stephens, N. M., & Townsend, S. S. M. (2013). How can incentives improve the success of disadvantaged college students? Insights from the Social Sciences. Policy brief for a project sponsored by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation at the George Washington University.
- Stephens, N. M., & Townsend, S. S. M. (2013). Rank is not enough: Why we need a sociocultural perspective to understand social class. Psychological Inquiry, 24(2), 126-130. doi: 10.1080/1047840X.2013.795099
- Fryberg, S. A., Stephens, N. M., Covarrubias, R., Markus, H. R., Carter, E. D., Laiduc, G. A., and Salido, A. J. (2012). How the media frames the immigration debate: The critical role of location and politics. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 12(1), 96-112. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-2415.2011.01259.x
- Kraus, M., & Stephens, N. M. (2012). A road map for an emerging psychology of social class. Social Psychology and Personality Compass, 6(9), 642-656. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2012.00453.x
- Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., & Markus, H. R. (2012). It's your choice: How the middle-class model of independence disadvantages working-class Americans. In S. T. Fiske & H. R. Markus (Eds.), Facing social class: How societal rank influences interaction (pp. 87-106). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
- Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., Markus, H. R., Johnson, C., & Covarrubias, R. (2012). Unseen disadvantage: How American universities’ focus on independence undermines the academic performance of first-generation college students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(6), 1178-1197. doi: 10.1037/a0027143 *Winner of Stanley Reiter Best Paper Award: judged to be the best paper among those published by the Kellogg faculty in the preceding four years
- Stephens, N. M., Markus, H. R., & Fryberg, S. A. (2012). Social class disparities in health and education: Reducing inequality by applying a sociocultural self model of behavior. Psychological Review, 119(4), 723-744. doi: 10.1037/a0029028 *Winner of Otto Klineberg Intercultural and International Relations Award
- Stephens, N. M., Townsend, S. S. M., Markus, H. R., & Phillips, T. (2012). A cultural mismatch: Independent cultural norms produce greater increases in cortisol and more negative emotions among first-generation college students. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(6), 1389-1393. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.07.008
- Savani, K., Stephens, N. M., & Markus, H. R. (2011). The unanticipated interpersonal and societal consequences of choice: Victim-blaming and reduced support for the public good. Psychological Science, 22(6), 795-802. doi: 10.1177/0956797611407928
- Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., & Markus, H. R. (2011). When choice does not equal freedom: A sociocultural analysis of agency in working-class contexts. Social and Personality Psychology Science, 2(1), 33-41. doi: 10.1177/1948550610378757
- Stephens, N. M., & Levine, C. S. (2011). Opting out or denying discrimination? How the framework of free choice in American society influences perceptions of gender inequality. Psychological Science, 22(10), 1231-1236. doi: 10.1177/0956797611417260
- Fryberg, S. A., & Stephens, N. M. (2010). When the world is colorblind, American Indians are invisible. Psychological Inquiry, 21(2), 115-119. doi: 10.1080/1047840X.2010.483847
- Sheperd, H., & Stephens, N. M. (2010). Using culture to explain behavior: An integrated cultural approach. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73(4), 353-354. doi: 10.1177/0190272510391422
- Stephens, N. M., Hamedani, M. G., Markus, H. R., Bergsieker, H. B., & Eloul, L. (2009). Why did they "choose" to stay? Perspectives of the Hurricane Katrina observers and survivors. Psychological Science, 20(7), 878-886. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02386.x
- Stephens, N. M., Markus, H. R., & Townsend, S. S. M. (2007). Choice as an act of meaning: The case of social class. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(5), 814-830. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1994
Papers Under Review:
- Kennedy, J. A., McDonnell, M. H., & Stephens, N. M. (Under review). Does gender raise the ethical bar? Exploring the punishment of ethical violations at work. Organization Science.
- Levine, C. S., Stephens, N. M., & Chentsova-Dutton, Y. (Under review). Whose explanation of inequality? Giving voice to underrepresented groups increases fit within organizations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.
- Savani, K., Stephens, N. M., & Markus, H. R. (Under review). Choice as an engine of analytic thought. Journal of Experimental Psychology.
- Phillips, L.T., Stephens, N.M., & Townsend, S.S.M. (Under review). Access is not enough: Cultural mismatch persists to limit first-generation students' opportunities for achievement throughout college. (Supplementary Online Material). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
- Townsend, S. S. M., Stephens, N. M., Smallets, S., & Hamedani, M. G. (Under review). Empowerment through difference: A scalable difference-education intervention closes the social class achievement gap. (Supporting materials). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
- Stephens, N. M., Hamedani, M. G., & Townsend, S.S.M. (Under review). Leveraging a pride perspective on difference to foster student achievement and success. Perspectives on Psychological Science.
- Dittman, A., & Stephens, N. M. (Under review). Interventions aimed at closing the social class achievement gap in education: individual, structural, and sociocultural approaches. Current Opinion in Psychology.
- Smallets, S., Townsend, S. S. M., & Stephens, N. M. (Under review). Is grit enough? Personal control is necessary for grit to produce increased engagement and performance. (Supporting materials). Psychological Science.
Papers in Preparation:
- Dittmann, A., Stephens, N. M., & Townsend, S. S. M. Working in middle-class organizations, but still working class: How social class background impacts subjective workplace experience.
- Cheryan, S., Siy, J. O., Jones, V., & Stephens, N. M. Ethnic deviance and group status: Who is reprimanded for acting like the outgroup
- Wazlawek, A., & Stephens, N. M. Women give more than they receive: The role of gender in reciprocal concessions.
- Stephens, N. M., Townsend, S. S. M., & Hamedani, M. G. The long term effects of difference-education: Course selection and grades.